Daily Archives: September 2, 2016
iPhoneOgraphy – 02 Sep 2016 (Day 246/366)
A textile or cloth is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.
The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).
The word ‘textile’ is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning ‘woven’, from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, ‘to weave’.
The word ‘fabric’ also derives from Latin, most recently from the Middle French fabrique, or ‘building, thing made’, and earlier as the Latin fabrica ‘workshop; an art, trade; a skillful production, structure, fabric’, which is from the Latin faber, or ‘artisan who works in hard materials’, from PIEdhabh-, meaning ‘to fit together’.
The word ‘cloth’ derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz (compare O.Frisian ‘klath’, Middle Dutch ‘cleet’, Dutch ‘kleed’, Middle High German ‘kleit’, and German ‘kleid’, all meaning “garment”).
The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods.