iPhoneOgraphy – 26 Apr 2016 (Day 117/366)
Epipremnum aureum is a species of flowering plant in the family of Araceae, native in Mo’orea, French Polynesia. The species is a popular houseplant in temperate regions, but has also become naturalized in tropical and sub-tropical forests worldwide, including northern Australia, Southeast Asia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Hawaii and the West Indies, where it has caused severe ecological damage in some cases.
The plant has a multitude of common names including golden pothos, hunter’s robe, ivy arum, money plant, silver vine, Solomon Islands ivy and taro vine. It is also called devil’s vine or devil’s ivy because it is almost impossible to kill. It is sometimes mistakenly labeled as a Philodendron in plant stores.
E. aureum is an evergreen vine growing to 20 m (66 ft) tall, with stems up to 4 cm (2 in) in diameter, climbing by means of aerial roots which adhere to surfaces. The leaves are alternate, heart-shaped, entire on juvenile plants, but irregularly pinnatifid on mature plants, up to 100 cm (39 in) long and 45 cm (18 in) broad; juvenile leaves are much smaller, typically under 20 cm (8 in) long. The flowers are produced in a spathe up to 23 cm (9 in) long. This plant produces trailing stems when it climbs up trees and these take root when they reach the ground and grow along it. The leaves on these trailing stems grow up to 10 cm (4 in) long and are the ones normally seen on this plant when it is cultivated as a pot plant.
In temperate regions it is a popular houseplant with numerous cultivars selected for leaves with white, yellow, or light green variegation. It is often used in decorative displays in shopping centers, offices, and other public locations largely because it requires little care and is also attractively leafy. It is also efficient at removing indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, xylene, and benzene. A study found that this effect lessened the higher the molecular weight of the polluting substance. As a houseplant it can reach a height of 20 m (66 ft) or more, given suitable support. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.
The plant is sometimes used in aquariums, placed on top of the aquarium and allowed to grow roots in the water. This is beneficial to the plant and the aquarium as it absorbs many nitrates and uses them for growth.
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dryland farming. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Archaeological investigation has identified evidence of irrigation where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support crops. Perennial irrigation was practiced in the Mesopotamian plain whereby crops were regularly watered throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field. Ancient Egyptians practiced Basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had been surrounded by dykes. The flood water was held until the fertile sediment had settled before the surplus was returned to the watercourse. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons, the lake swelled annually from flooding of the Nile. In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet season flooding and water harvesting. Terrace irrigation is evidenced in pre-Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE. These canals are the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th millennium canal. Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE. Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation. The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Due to their engineering superiority in this sector, they were often called ‘masters of irrigation’. [By whom?] Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153–1186 CE).
F/5.6, 1/200 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
Grasses, or more technically graminoids, are monocotyledonous, usually herbaceous plants with narrow leaves growing from the base. They include the “true grasses”, of the family Poaceae (also called Gramineae), as well as the sedges (Cyperaceae) and the rushes (Juncaceae). The true grasses include cereals, bamboo and the grasses of lawns (turf) and grassland. Sedges include many wild marsh and grassland plants, and some cultivated ones such as water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) and papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus). Uses for graminoids include food (as grain, sprouted grain, shoots or rhizomes), drink (beer, whisky, vodka), pasture for livestock, thatch, paper, fuel, clothing, insulation, construction, sports turf, basket weaving and many others. Graminoids include some of the most versatile plant life-forms. They became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, and fossilized dinosaur dung (coprolites) have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and even intertidal habitats, and are now the most widespread plant type; grass is a valuable source of food and energy for all sorts of wildlife and organics. Graminoids are the dominant vegetation in many habitats, including grassland, salt-marsh, reedswamp and steppes. They also occur as a smaller part of the vegetation in almost every other terrestrial habitat. Many types of animals eat grass as their main source of food, and are called graminivores – these include cattle, sheep, horses, rabbits and many invertebrates, such as grasshoppers and the caterpillars of many brown butterflies. Grasses are also eaten by omnivorous or even occasionally by primarily carnivorous animals. Grasses are unusual in that the meristem is located near the bottom of the plant, hence can quickly recover from cropping at the top. In the study of ecological communities, herbaceous plants are divided into graminoids and forbs, which are herbaceous dicotyledons, mostly with broad leaves.
F/5.6, 1/50 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
The permanent way is the elements of railway lines: generally the pairs of rails typically laid on the sleepers (“ties” in American parlance) embedded in ballast, intended to carry the ordinary trains of a railway. It is described as permanent way because in the earlier days of railway construction, contractors often laid a temporary track to transport spoil and materials about the site; when this work was substantially completed, the temporary track was taken up and the permanent way installed. The earliest tracks consisted of wooden rails on transverse wooden sleepers, which helped maintain the spacing of the rails. Various developments followed, with cast iron plates laid on top of the wooden rails and later wrought iron plates or wrought iron angle plates (L-shaped plate rails). Rails were also individually fixed to rows of stone blocks, without any cross ties to maintain correct separation. This system also led to problems, as the blocks could individually move, and it was replaced by the “modern system” of rails and transverse sleepers. Although, Brunel’s 7 ft (2,134 mm) broad gauge system used rails laid on longitudinal sleepers tied to piles. Developments in manufacturing technologies has led to changes to the design, manufacture and installation of rails, sleepers and the means of attachments. Cast iron rails, 4 feet (1.22 m) long, began to be used in the 1790s and by 1820, 15 feet (4.57 m) long wrought iron rails were in use. The first steel rails were made in 1857 and standard rail lengths increased over time from 30 to 60 feet (9.14 to 18.29 m). Rails were typically specified by units of weight per linear length and these also increased. Railway sleepers were traditionally made of Creosote-treated hardwoods and this continued through to modern times. Continuous welded rail was introduced into Britain in the mid-1960s and this was followed by the introduction of concrete sleepers. The earliest use of a railway track seems to have been in connection with mining in Germany in the 12th century. Mine passageways were usually wet and muddy, and moving barrows of ore along them was extremely difficult. Improvements were made by laying timber planks so that wheeled containers could be dragged along by manpower. By the 16th century the difficulty of keeping the wagon running straight had been solved by having a pin going into a gap between the planks. Georg Agricola describes box-shaped carts, called “dogs”, about half as large again as a wheelbarrow, fitted with a blunt vertical pin and wooden rollers running on iron axles. An Elizabethan era example of this has been discovered at Silvergill in Cumbria, England, and they were probably also in use in the nearby Mines Royal of Grasmere, Newlands and Caldbeck. Where space permitted round-section wooden tracks to take trucks with flanged wheels were installed: a painting from 1544 by the Flemish artist Lucas Gassel shows a copper mine with rails of this type emerging from an adit.
F/5.6, 1/60 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
Much of the Australian lifestyle is based around the country areas, with farms and properties accounting for much of the land use in this huge country. Livestock such as cattle and sheep as well as other farming types including growing a huge variety of crops is widespread in non-built-up areas. Visitors to Australia will often only see the cities and coastline, so getting out to some farms is a great way to see the countryside and experience some of the ‘true blue’ Aussie farming culture. Natural attractions also abound in the Gold Coast region. The area was formed about 24 million years ago when two massive volcanos erupted (one of them being Mount Warning), spilling out huge volumes of rock and molten lava previously stored beneath the surface of the earth. Subsequent volcanic activity worked further on the terrain, creating a variety of features and forming the country-side we see today. The area is now blessed with a combination of rainforest covered mountains and lush green flatlands.
F/4, 1/2000 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
The Clem Jones Promenade is a scenic river walk that spans the length of the South Bank Parklands. Stretching from QPAC to the Maritime Museum, the Promenade is fringed by magnificent fig trees and has unobscured views of the Brisbane River and CBD. It is the perfect location for walking, running or cycling and it also has plenty of seating for those who just want to sit back and enjoy the view. Rainforest Walk. It’s not often that you find a rainforest in the middle of a city, so a stroll along this hidden gem is a must when you’re at South Bank. The rainforest walk is located in the heart of the Parklands and features stunning boardwalk surrounded by lush, local trees and plants. It’s the perfect place some tranquil reflection or a bit of wildlife spotting – the space is home to plenty of colorful lizards, birds and fish. The Arbour. Those with a penchant for color and creativity will love the Arbour, a kilometre-long walkway awning located in the Parklands. The Arbour has won multiple awards for its architecture and is comprised of 443 curling, galvanized steel posts that are each clad with vibrant magenta bougainvillea flowers. It also has a ribbon of yellow steel running along it to provide shade and weather protection for its patrons.
F/4, 1/50 sec, ISO – 200, Photoshop CS6
For at least 6000 years, Aboriginal people lived in and visited these mountains. The vanished Wangerriburras and Nerangballum tribes claimed home to the plateau territory. Roughly 900 years ago the indigenous population began to decline. Bushrangers Cave, which is close to Mount Hobwee and is 60 metres (200 ft) long, was once an aboriginal camp. This site shows Aboriginal occupation going back 10,000 years. Captain Patrick Logan and Allan Cunningham were the first European explorers in the area. The timber cutters soon followed, including the Lahey family who owned one of Queensland’s largest timber mills at the time. In 1863 a survey of the Queensland/New South Wales border was conducted. The task was carried out by Francis Edward Roberts and Isaiah Rowland, both surveyors, who had to define the border along the highest points in dense rainforest where there were very few clear lines of sight. Robert Collins campaigned heavily for the protection of the area from logging from the 1890s. Collins entered state parliament and saw a bill passed that preserved state forests and national parks but he died before the McPherson Range was protected. Later it was another local, Romeo Lahey who recognised the value of preserving the forests. He campaigned to make it one of the first protected areas in Queensland. The O’Reilly family established a guesthouse near the park in 1926, now named O’Reilly’s Rainforest Retreat, and founding members of the National Parks Association of Queensland built Binna Burra Lodge next to the park in the 1930s. Lamington National park was established in 1915. The park was named after Lord Lamington, Governor of Queensland from 1896 to 1902. In 1937, Bernard O’Reilly became a hero when he rescued the survivors from a Stinson plane that crashed in the remote Lamington wilderness. In typical Australian bushman fashion he embarked on his rescue mission taking only onions and bread to eat. Only a small portion of the original wreck remains today, 10 km south from the O’Reilly’s guesthouse.
F/4, 1/800 Sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
A parasitic plant is one that derives some or all of its nutritional requirements from another living plant. All parasitic plants have special organs, named haustoria (singular: haustorium), which connect them to the conductive system of their host and provide them with the ability to extract water and nutrient from the hosts. About 4,100 species in approximately 19 families of flowering plants are known. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem, phloem, or both.
F/4, 1/8 sec, ISO – 800, Photoshop CS6