iPhoneOgraphy – 29 Oct 2016 (Day 303/366)
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, “the sea” is the interconnected system of Earth’s salty, oceanic waters – considered as one global ocean or as several principal oceanic divisions. The sea moderates Earth’s climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. Although the sea has been travelled and exploredsince prehistory, the modern scientific study of the sea – oceanography – dates broadly to the British Challenger expedition of the 1870s. The sea is conventionally divided into up to five large oceanic sections – including the International Hydrographic Organization’s four named oceans (the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Arctic) and the Southern Ocean; smaller, second-order sections, such as the Mediterranean, are known as seas.
Owing to the present state of continental drift, the Northern Hemisphere is now fairly equally divided between land and sea (a ratio of about 2:3) but the South is overwhelmingly oceanic (1:4.7). Salinity in the open ocean is generally in a narrow band around 3.5% by mass, although this can vary in more landlocked waters, near the mouths of large rivers, or at great depths. About 85% of the solids in the open sea are sodium chloride. Deep – sea currents are produced by differences in salinity and temperature. Surface currents are formed by the friction of waves produced by the wind and by tides, the changes in local sea level produced by the gravity of the Moon and Sun. The direction of all of these is governed by surface and submarine land masses and by the rotation of the Earth (the Coriolis effect).
Former changes in sea levels have left continental shelves, shallow areas in the sea close to land. These nutrient-rich waters teem with life, which provide humans with substantial supplies of food – mainly fish, but also shellfish, mammals, and seaweed – which are both harvested in the wild and farmed. The most diverse areas surround great tropical coral reefs. Whaling in the deep sea was once common but whales’ dwindling numbers prompted international conservation efforts and finally a moratorium on most commercial hunting. Oceanography has established that not all life is restricted to the sunlit surface waters: even under enormous depths and pressures, nutrients streaming from hydrothermal vents support their own unique ecosystem. Life may have started there and aquatic microbial mats are generally credited with the oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere; both plants and animals first evolved in the sea.
The sea is an essential aspect of human trade, travel, mineral extraction, and power generation. This has also made it essential to warfare and left major cities exposed to earthquakes and volcanoes from nearby faults; powerful tsunami waves; and hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones produced in the tropics. This importance and duality has affected human culture, from early sea gods to the epic poetry of Homer to the changes induced by the Columbian Exchange, from burial at sea to Basho’s haikus to hyperrealist marine art, and inspiring music ranging from the shanties in The Complaynt of Scotland to Rimsky-Korsakov’s “The Sea and Sinbad’s Ship” to A-Mei’s “Listen of the Sea”. It is the scene of leisure activities including swimming, diving, surfing, and sailing. However, population growth, industrialization, and intensive farming have all contributed to present-day marine pollution. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is being absorbed in increasing amounts, lowering its pH in a process known as ocean acidification. The shared nature of the sea has made overfishing an increasing problem.
Both senses of sea date to Old English; the larger sense has required a definite article since Early Middle English. As the term has been applied over time, there are no sharp distinctions between seas and oceans, although seas are smaller and are – with the notable exception of the Sargasso Sea created by the North Atlantic Gyre – usually bounded by land on a smaller scale than multiple continents. Seas are generally larger than lakes and contain salt water, but the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake. There is no accepted technical definition of “sea” among oceanographers. In international law, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all the ocean is “the sea”.
Kingscliffs first name was Sutherland Point. It got this name when early settlers found a grave on the hill with the name Sutherland on it. Rich red fertile soil of Cudgen and the abundant sea-life on the coast of Kingscliff attracted the Tweed aboriginal clan of the Coodjingburra to settle in this area. They spoke the Bundjalung tongue and settled upon the coastal strip running from the Brunswick River to the Tweed River and then approximately fifteen kilometers inland to the now present site of Murwillumbah. The headland at Kingscliff was an important meeting place for this clan, with numerous middens near the beach proving testimony to the fine fishing and many corroborees.
Kingscliff is a coastal town just south of Tweed Heads in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia, and is part of Tweed Shire. Kingscliff is a beach community offering a variety of holiday accommodations. Together with the villages of Chinderah and Fingal, it is a tourist destination that provides beach and estuary access for swimming, surfing, fishing and water sports. An ocean way allows pedestrians and cyclists to move from the historic centre of town out to the emerging new communities along the Tweed Coast in a sustainable manner. The main Kingscliff beach has in the past suffered from severe erosion, with portions of the Caravan Park and beachside carparks being threatened or reclaimed by the sea. The Kingscliff view from the plane was beautiful with the blue green ocean.
F/5.6, 1/400 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
Tweed Heads is a town located on the Tweed River in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia, in Tweed Shire. Tweed Heads is located next to the border with Queensland, adjacent to the “Twin Town” of Coolangatta, a suburb of the Gold Coast. It is often referred to as a town where you can change time zones – even celebrate New Year twice within an hour – simply by crossing the street, due to its proximity to the Queensland border, and the fact that New South Wales observes daylight saving whereas Queensland does not.
In 1823 John Oxley was the first European to see the Tweed Valley, and he wrote of it: “A deep rich valley clothed with magnificent trees, the beautiful uniformity of which was only interrupted by the turns and windings of the river, which here and there appeared like small lakes. The background was Mt. Warning. The view was altogether beautiful beyond description. The scenery here exceeded anything I have previously seen in Australia.” Timber cutters originally moved to the Tweed Valley in 1844. After the timber had been cleared, farmers moved in with bananas, cane and dairy farming dominating the area, while a fishing industry developed.
F/5, 1/400 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6
The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is a cartilaginous fish of the eagle ray family, Myliobatidae. It can be found globally in tropical regions, including the Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii, off the coast of West Africa, the Indian Ocean, Oceania, and on both coasts of the Americas at depths down to about 80 meters (262 ft). The rays are most commonly seen alone, but occasionally swim in groups. Rays are ovoviviparous, the female retaining the eggs then releasing the young as miniature versions of the parent.
This ray can be identified by its dark dorsal surface covered in white spots or rings. Near the base of the ray’s relatively long tail, just behind the pelvic fins, are several venomous, barbed stingers. Spotted eagle rays commonly feed on small fish and crustaceans, and will sometimes dig with their snouts to look for food buried in the sand of the sea bed. These rays are commonly observed leaping out of the water, and on at least two occasions have been reported as having jumped into boats, in one incident resulting in the death of a woman in the Florida Keys. The spotted eagle ray is hunted by a wide variety of sharks. The rays are considered Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. They are fished mainly in Southeast Asia and Africa, the most common market being in commercial trade and aquariums. They are protected in the Great Barrier Reef.
F/5.6, 1/60 sec, ISO – 100, Photoshop CS6