iPhoneOgraphy – 30 Sep 2016 (Day 274/366)
The vascular cambium (plural cambia) is a plant tissue located between the xylem and the phloem in the stem but not in the root of a vascular plant, and is the source of both the secondary xylem growth (inwards, towards the pith [material at the center of plant, often dead and/or deteriorated, that is composed of parenchyma tissue]) and the secondary phloem growth (outwards [to the bark, rough or smooth, of the plant]). It is a cylinder of unspecialized meristem cells that divide to give new cells which then specialize to form secondary vascular tissues.
Vascular cambia are found in dicots and gymnosperms but not monocots, which usually lack secondary growth. A few leaf types also have a vascular cambium.Vascular cambium does not transport water, minerals, or dissolved food through the plant. It does, however, produce the phloem and xylem, which do perform these functions.
For successful grafting, the vascular cambia of the rootstock and scion must be aligned so they can grow together. In wood, the vascular cambium is the obvious line separating the bark and wood.
The cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem is called intrafasicular cambium. At the time of secondary growth, cells of meduallary rays, in a line with intrafasicular cambium, become meristematic and form interfascicular cambium. The intrafascicular and interfascicular cambiums, therefore, represent a continuous ring which bisects the primary xylem and primary phloem and is known as cambium ring. The vascular cambium then produces secondary xylem on the inside of the ring, and secondary phloem on the outside, pushing the primary xylem and phloem apart.
Shot & Edited using iPhone 6+
iPhoneOgraphy – 12 May 2016 (Day 133/366)
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the periderm. The outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm. The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the rhytidome.
Products derived from bark include: bark shingle siding and wall coverings, spices and other flavorings, tanbark for tannin, resin, latex, medicines, poisons, various hallucinogenic chemicals and cork. Bark has been used to make cloth, canoes, and ropes and used as a surface for paintings and map making. A number of plants are also grown for their attractive or interesting bark colorations and surface textures or their bark is used as landscape mulch.